History

 Lineage of the Academy

(click here for karate lineage flow chart)

Introduction

Chinese fighting arts

Early Okinawan karate

Goju-ryu
References

   

 

 

 

 










 
   


Ei'ichi Miyazato - (image from Fighting Arts International No. 92,p.36)

Ei'ichi Miyazato

Ei'ichi Miyazato, who had trained with Miyagi since 1935 was also at one time the all-Okinawan Judo champion and the all-Japan police Judo champion.

In 1957 Miyazato moved the students from the Miyagi family garden dojo to a permanent dojo in Naha that he named the Jundokan. It is said that Miyazato incorporated many Judo, Aikido and Ti techniques into the training regimen at his well equipped dojo. Over the years Miyazato Sensei taught many well-known karateka. They include Koshin Iha, Ted Yasuda, Chuck Merriman, Teruo Chinan and An'ichi Miyagi (no relation to Chojun Miyagi). According to historian Mark Bishop, perhaps his best known student is the dynamic Morio Higaonna (no relation to Kanryo Higaonna) although Higaonna himself has stated that his main teacher has always been An'ichi Miyagi.

[For further information on this dispute read this interview for Morio Higaonna's version and the final interview with Grandmaster Miyazato for his, and the Jundokan association's, version.]

The essence of Miyazato's karate is summed up by his dojo kun here listed as translated for historian Mark Bishop.

· Be mindful of your courtesy with humbleness
· Train yourself considering physical strength.
· Study and contrive seriously
· Be calm in mind and swift in action
· Take care of yourself
· Live a plain and simple life
· Do not be too proud of yourself
· Continue training with patience and humbleness

(The above mottoes should be recognizable to the Wu-Wei Dao student as they are the same ones we use - albeit with a slightly different translation - see Academy motto).

 

 

   
     


An'ichi Miyagi and Morio Higaonna (image from 'TOGKF' - see References)

An'ichi Miyagi

An'ichi Miyagi was born in Naha in 1931 and although no relation of Master Chojun Miyagi he lived about 5 minutes walk from the master's home. He began his training in 1948 in Chojun Miyagi's garden dojo. During this same period Chojun Miyagi was teaching three times a week at the Police Academy in Naha and his remaining classes were taught in his garden dojo at home. As with the other students who trained at the master's house An'ichi was expected also to clean the house, tend the garden, make tea and perform any other tasks that needed attention. In return Chojun Miyagi did not charge them training fees. During this period Chojun Miyagi refused to take on any more students at his home and eventually, as one student after another stopped training for various reasons, only An’ichi Miyagi remained at the garden dojo. Apart from Shuichi Aragaki, the grandson of Miyagi's first karate teacher, Miyagi did not admit more students until 1952 when the garden dojo numbers increased to about 15 students.

Following Chojun Miyagi's death in 1953, there was a requisite mourning period during which training at the garden dojo was suspended. An'ichi Miyagi's training resumed in 1954 under the supervision of Eiichi Miyazato and with the assistance of Koshin Iha, initially still at the Miyagi family garden dojo and later at Miyazato's Jundokan dojo. As one of the Sempai (senior students) An'ichi Miyagi assisted with teaching. In fact, present-day Master Morio Higaonna credits An'ichi Miyagi as his main instructor in Goju-ryu at the garden dojo and maintained an instructor-student relationship with him until the latter's passing on 27 April 2009.

 
     


Morio Higaonna (image from Fighting Arts International No.58, p.5)

Morio Higaonna

Shihan Morio Higaonna (no relation to Kanryo Higaonna), is a karateka who can trace his lineage directly to Chojun Miyagi.

Higaonna was once described by martial arts historian Don Draeger as "the most dangerous man in Japan if it came to a real fight" and is acknowledged by many to be, to the martial arts, what Michael Jordan is to basketball.

Morio Higaonna was born in Naha, Okinawa in 1938. He started training in Shorin-ryu karate in 1952 when he was 14 years old. In 1955 at the age of 16 he began training in Goju-ryu in the garden dojo of the late Chojun Miyagi. At this time the dojo was supervised by Chojun Miyagi's student Eiichi Miyazato although Higaonna's Sempai in the dojo was An'ichi Miyagi. In 1957 a full-time dojo, the Jundokan, was opened by Miyazato and the students of the garden dojo shifted to the new premises. Higaonna continued his training there until he was accepted into Takushoku University in Tokyo in 1960. As Higaonna had never been graded, just before he leaving for Tokyo a grading was organised at his request and he was awarded a 3rd Dan black belt by Miyazato Sensei.

With his credentials established, Higaonna was engaged as an instructor at a dojo in the Yoyogi district of Tokyo. Although only 22, his realistic karate and personal ability had caught the attention of the dojo owner who invited him to teach there, even though it was a Shorin-ryu dojo. Higaonna's classes soon became very popular despite the severity of his training methods and it wasn't long before he was employed as a full-time instructor. In time, the Yoyogi dojo converted to Goju-ryu and over the next 21 years Higaonna Sensei's and the Yoyogi dojo's reputation and popularity grew among martial artists the world over.


Sensei Higaonna with Wu-Wei Dao instructors Nenad (left) and Dan (right) in 1994.

It was not only Higaonna's realistic karate and personal ability that impressed people, but also his genuine modesty and humility and the manner in which he and his students treated gaijin (foreigner) students. At a time when non-Japanese karate students in Japan were treated as cannon-fodder in most dojos, Higaonna's classes were conducted in an atmosphere of mutual respect. Many foreigners who had come to Tokyo to study at internationally famous dojos such as the Japan Karate Association (JKA) and Kyokushinkai Honbu (Headquarters) dojos were so impressed by Higaonna's powerful karate, that they converted to Goju-ryu. Some of these, including Denis St. John Thomson sponsored Higaonna to travel overseas to teach his brand of karate directly to their students. Others, like Sensei Graham Ravey took up permanent residence in Tokyo in order to train with Higaonna Sensei.

Whenever he could, Higaonna continued to visit his family home in Okinawa and continued to learn from senior Goju-ryu instructors. In 1979, as a 6th Dan Black belt, he left the Jundokan and, with James Rousseau, set up the IOGKF (International Okinawan Goju-ryu Federation) taking up the role of Chief Instructor to that organisation.

Higaonna continued to teach at the Yoyogi dojo until 1981 when he returned to Okinawa. He has subsequently moved to California in the USA when he still lives and teaches. Recently the late Hanshi Yuchoku Higa, a Shorin-ryu master who trained as a youth under both Chojun Miyagi (briefly) and Jin'an Shinzato, awarded Morio Higaonna the grades of 8th and later 9th Dan.

 
     


Above: Karate and Weapons expert Denis St. John Thomson (image from http://www.kushido.com/en/)

Denis St John Thomson

One of the pioneers of western karate, Hanshi Denis St John Thomson was recognised not only as one of the most senior Okinawan Goju-ryu instructors in the world but was also an internationally recognised Okinawan Kobudo (weapons) expert. Over the years many well-known senior karateka commenced their training in his karate-do school including Bakkies Laubscher (now the most senior-graded Westerner in Morio Higaonna's IOGKF), James Rousseau (who was instrumental in the establishment of the IOGKF), Leon Pantanowitz, Bob Davies and Len Resnikov, among others.

Hanshi Denis began training in karate in South Africa in 1963 with his brother Hugh in an organization that became known as "Karate-do International" (now "Kushido Karate-do"). They trained in and taught the Kyokushinkai ("ultimate truth") style of karate, founded by Japanese Karate strong-man Mas Oyama.


Mas Oyama (image from Australasian Fighting Arts. Vol 11, No.5, p22)

Karate in the early sixties was considered a mystical art that enabled a flesh and bone human to become a brick smashing and board breaking superhuman. Japanese Karate strong-man Mas Oyama did much to perpetuate this belief, even among sceptics, by killing Bulls bare-handed.

To this day some training methods pioneered by Kyokushin, such as the concepts of "Spirit Training", "Intensive Training" and "Gashuku" along with the use of high repetition basics, are still practised in Wu-Wei Dao occasionally.

Sensei Kanazawa with Wu-Wei Dao instructors Dan (left) and Nenad (right) in 1996

In 1965, in conjunction with various other schools and clubs in Cape town, Durban and Johannesburg, including a Johannesburg based club operated by Stan Schmidt (now at 8th Dan, the highest graded Westerner in Japanese Karate), four highly graded Japanese Shotokan karateka were brought out to South Africa, namely: Taiji Kase, Hirokazu Kanazawa (see photo below), Keinosuke Enoeda and Hiroshi Shirai. The South Africans were so impressed by their ability that all participating clubs (including Denis' "Karate-do" dojo) joined the Japan Karate Association (or JKA, formed by the famous Shorin-ryu master Gichin Funakoshi).


Above: Kase Sensei applies an arm lock (image from Fighting Arts International No.61, p.27)

Of the four, Taiji Kase, 7th Degree Black Belt and Hiroshi Shirai, 5th Degree Black Belt taught at Denis' Cape Town dojo. In particular, Shirai stayed for more than six months. During this period Hanshi Denis and most of the original 'Karate-do' students underwent special instructor training during which time (1965) they were awarded 1st degree black belts in Japan Karate Association (JKA) Shotokan.


Above: Shirai Sensei demonstrating kata applications (image from Fighting Arts International No.61, p.26)

Apparently the training was very severe. Instructors such as Taiji Kase, who had trained throughout the war (when the Japanese government turned a blind eye to death rates in Karate dojos provided they were less than 10% of the membership!) would think nothing of breaking a student's arm, leg or ribs during demonstrations.

In December 1966 Karate-do International began a process of conversion from JKA Shotokan to the style of Okinawan Goju-ryu (as opposed to Japanese Goju-kai system taught by Gogen Yamaguchi) as taught at Morio Higaonna's small but well respected Yoyogi dojo in Tokyo.

Despite this conversion, Karate-do International retained two Shorin kata and many training methods which still form part of the Academy's curriculum.

In years to come, Hanshi Denis made visits to Higaonna's 'Yoyogi dojo' and moreover the 'Karate-do' school sponsored Higaonna and other Okinawan Goju-ryu instructors to make training visits to South Africa.

Hanshi Denis followed up his 1st Dan grading in JKA Shotokan with a 2nd Dan in Goju-ryu in 1967 and in 1969 underwent special Instructor Training in Goju-ryu under Shihan Morio Higaonna in Tokyo. In same year he also began training in the Okinawan Weapons of Nunchaku, Bo and Sai and Tonfa. As a result of this training and research, he was promoted to Chief Instructor of the 'Karate-do' school in 1970.

In 1972, Denis underwent further instructor training under Shihan Morio Higaonna and was awarded his 4th Dan in Goju-ryu. He followed this up in 1974 with advanced instructor courses (which included weapons training) in Tokyo, Japan and also Naha, the capital of Okinawa and birthplace of karate where he attended the World Goju-ryu Congress.

In 1976 Denis was awarded his 5th Dan Black Belt. In 1980 he attained 6th Dan and Shihan ranking. In 1985 he was awarded the title of Renshi in recognition for his research into traditional Okinawan Weapons. In the same year he made a trip to Taiwan and Hong Kong to study taiji and Chinese weaponry.

Hanshi Denis passed away on 2 September 2009 after a long battle with illness.  He was recognised not only as one of the most senior Western Okinawan Goju-ryu instructors in the world but was also an internationally recognised Okinawan Kobudo (weapons) expert. He remained the Chief Instructor of Kushido Karate-do until his passing.

 
     


A recent picture of Lao Shi Bob Davies

Bob Davies

Robert (Bob) Davies commenced his study of karate both in its sport and traditional forms in 1966 and progressed to become a senior student of Denis St. John Thomson. In 1975 Bob Davies established a branch of Karate-do International in the Natal province of South Africa. He followed this up with a full-time dojo in 1977, and developed a provincial organisation of eleven branches over the next decade.


Ken Cottier in South Africa in 1984 (image from Fighting Arts International No.92, p.31)

From the early 1980's, in addition to his continuing training with the Karate-do International organisation, he began to seek knowledge from other sources. In particular he has studied: Aikido (from Ken Cottier - one of the most respected non-Japanese Aikidoka and a student the legendary late Morihei Ueshiba); Escrima (from Bill Newman a student of respected Filipino Escrima master Rene Latosa), Arnis (from the late Remy Presas and various other masters during a number of training visits to the Philippines); Okinawan Kobudo (weaponry); the traditional short staff weapon systems of 'Aiki-jo', 'Zen Nihon Kendo Renmei Jodo', and 'Shindo Muso Ryu Jojutsu'; and the Chinese 'close-range' fighting styles of Wing Chun and Qin-na (a grappling art, similar to Ju-Jitsu).


Master Hong Yi Xiang (image from 'Way of the Warrior' - see references)

In 1985 Bob decided that the worldwide trend of commercialisation and modification of martial arts for sport and competition was not conducive to effective self-defence application, health and personal growth, and withdrew his support for the modern sport-variants of the arts.


Shihan Risuke Otake of Tenshin Shoden Katori Shinto-ryu

In 1986 he travelled to Taiwan where he was accepted as the private student of the late Hong Yi Xiang, who was one of the world's foremost authorities on the internal arts of China practised as combat (rather than health) disciplines. Bob Davies' studies with Hong Yi Xiang not only encompassed the arts of Xingyiquan, Baguazhang and Taijiquan but enabled him to research the links between those arts, particularly Xingyi, and Okinawan karate. This study gave him a deeper understanding of the principles and application of karate kata. Later in that same year he established the Wu-Shin Chi-Dao Martial Arts College ("the spirit way of no restrictions") with a syllabus that combined Karate-do with his other knowledge. Most recently Bob Davies has been engaged in the study of Tenshin Shoden Katori Shinto Ryu Heiho Jutsu - the 560-year-old Martial Art of the Japanese Samurai under Shihan Risuke Otake.


Morihei Ueshiba at 84 years of age (image from Fighting Arts International No.92, p.30)

As a martial artist and instructor Bob Davies is a perfectionist renowned for his ability to acquire and assimilate practical, pertinent knowledge. His studies have taken him to Japan, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, Philippines, Australia, Western and Eastern Europe and the USA. Balancing this expertise has included an in-depth examination of some of the 'healing' aspects of martial and civilian combat arts training provided by a number of schools of meditation, Shiatsu, Chinese Chi-Kung, as well as clinical anatomy and physiology including a year of full-time cadaver dissection.


Bob Davies in 1984 (training with a chi-shi - an Okinawan training weight)

His 'practical' expertise includes holding the position of specialist instructor for the Durban (South Africa) City Police Department from 1986 for a period of 13 years; responsible for training force members in all aspects of the use of batons, self-defence techniques, arrest restraints, close-quarter combat, compliance, restraint and come-along techniques. Between 1987 and 1989 instruction also involved special Riot and Crowd control training as well as the use of the standard issue PR24 baton. In 1995, Bob also ran an advanced training course for a selected group of senior instructors of the South African Police Services and members of their Special Task Force, incorporating a number of practical scenarios.


Lao Shi Bob Davies (pictured holding a naginata) with his partner Shaz Davis.

Since 1975 Bob has personally trained over 8000 students. As an indication of his high standards, in all of that time he has awarded only sixty-five black belt grades (in four different disciplines) of whom twelve individuals went on to reach the internationally rated rank of 3rd Dan, five the rank of 4th Dan (two of which are Nenad and Dejan Djurdjevic), and one the rank of 5th Dan.

 
     

Nenad and Dejan Djurdjevic


Dan and Nenad practising kotekitai at the 1998 Gashuku

Nenad and Dejan (Dan) Djurdjevic began their formal training with Laoshi Bob Davies on 14 February 1981 in his branch of Karate-do International in Durban, South Africa.

On 26 April 1985 Nenad and Dan established a martial arts school in Perth, Western Australia that is today known as the Academy of Traditional Fighting Arts.  Initially their school was a branch of the Karate-do International organisation but - from 8 December 1986 - the school was affiliated directly to their teacher's (Bob Davies') Wu-Shin Chi-Dao Martial Arts College.


Dan and Nenad practising yoko geri (side kick) at the 1998 Gashuku

On 23 December 1996, after an apprenticeship of nearly 16 years under their teacher Bob Davies, Nenad and Dejan, acting in conjunction with their most senior students, established their school as an independent entity. The school was named Wu-Wei Dao ("the way of spontaneous action"/"achieving a result without action") in order to reflect its philosophy and technical direction.  


Dan and Nenad practising Seiunchin kata at a class held by Graham Ravey

In July 2006 the school changed its name to the Academy of Traditional Fighting Arts in order to better describe the scope of the syllabus (the term “Wu-Wei Dao” is still used to describe the system under which the arts are taught).


Dan and Nenad practising kakie in 1993

The Academy's syllabus reflects Kancho Nenad's and Shihan Dan's studies of Goju-ryu karate as taught by Chojun Miyagi as well as select techniques and forms from Shorin-ryu karate, traditional Okinawan weapons arts (kobudo), some southern Chinese and Filipino martial arts and the internal arts of China.


Dan and Nenad training bo (staff) with Laoshi Bob in 1990

Kancho Nenad and Shihan Dan acquired their knowledge primarily from  Laoshi Bob Davies. In addition to their studies with Bob Davies, Nenad and Dejan have trained with and gained knowledge from a variety of sources over the years including: Hugh and Denis St. John Thomson, Graham Ravey (formerly chief technical advisor to IOGKF Australia, now head of the TOGKF), Hirokazu Kanazawa (the founder of SKI Shotokan), Morio Higaonna (the chief instructor of the IOGKF), Tatsuo Suzuki (the founder of Wado-ryu karate), Ken Cottier (a student the legendary Aikido master Morihei Ueshiba), the late Shihan Jan de-Jong (an internationally recognized master of Ju-Jitsu), Cacoy Canete (the founder of Doce Pares Escrima), BJJ instructor John Will, Goju-kai instructors Tino and Paul Ceberano and Sal Ebanez, Kali and Jeet Kune Do legend Dan Inosanto and Wing Chun instructor William Cheung, among others.

Recently Shihan Dan became a student of Chen Yun-Ching, son of the late internal arts master
Chen Pan-Ling.

 


Sempai Adam, Sensei Martin, John Will and Nenad


Dan Inosanto and Nenad


Nenad and Jeff Speakman

 


Nenad and Tino Ceberano


Paul Ceberano and Nenad


Nenad and Sal Ebanez

 

 


Dan and Chen Yun-Ching


Nenad and William Cheung


Sensei Graham Ravey